World Investment Report 2007
|Report - Ecomonics|
|February 27 2008|
World Investment Report 2007 (WIR07) is the seventeenth in a series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
The Report analyses the latest trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) and puts a special focus in 2007 on the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extraction of oil, gas, and metal minerals.
Foreign direct investment represents the largest share of external capital flows to developing countries. Just as transnational corporations can bring with them new technology, management know-how and improved market access, foreign direct investment can be a significant force for development. In 2006, developing countries attracted $380 billion in foreign direct investment — more than ever before. While two thirds of these flows went to rapidly growing markets in Asia, virtually all developing regions participated in the increase. Investments rose particularly fast in many countries that are richly endowed with natural resources.
The World Investment Report 2007 focuses on the role of transnational corporations in extractive industries, and documents their presence in many of the world’s poorest economies. Transnational corporations can bring in the finance and management skills these economies need to transform their resources into products that can be used locally or exported. The rise of new transnational corporations from the South, not least Asia, has given mineral-rich countries a wider spectrum of potential sources of investment.
But as we know, the extraction of natural resources involves considerable economic, environmental and social challenges. The objective is to ensure it is done in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner possible, while at the same time contributing to poverty alleviation and accelerated development.
For that, we need institutional and regulatory frameworks promoted by accountable Governments, as well as responsible investors. All relevant stakeholders need to join forces in a concerted effort. This year’s World Investment Report offers useful insights to that end.
PDF format, 4.8MB, 323Pages.
Global FDI flows approach their 2000 peak level …
Global FDI inflows soared in 2006 to reach $1,306 billion – a growth of 38%. This marked the third consecutive year of growth, and approached the record level of $1,411 billion reached in 2000. It reflected strong economic performance in many parts of the world. Inflows increased in all three groups of economies: developed countries, developing countries and the transition economies of South-East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
The rise in global FDI flows was partly driven by increasing corporate profits worldwide and resulting higher stock prices that raised the value of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). M&As continued to account for a high share of FDI flows, but greenfield investment also increased, especially in developing and transition economies. As a result of higher corporate profits, reinvested earnings have become an important component of inward FDI: they accounted for an estimated 30% of total inflows worldwide in 2006 and for almost 50% in developing countries alone.
While FDI inflows in developed countries rose by 45% – well over the rate of the previous two years – to reach $857 billion, flows to developing countries and the transition economies attained their highest levels ever: $379 billion (a 21% increase over those in 2005) and $69 billion (a 68% increase) respectively. The United States regained its position as the leading host country, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The largest inflows among developing economies went to China, Hong Kong (China) and Singapore, and among the transition economies to the Russian Federation.
Developed-country TNCs remained the leading sources of FDI, accounting for 84% of global outflows. While there was a rebound of FDI from the United States, almost half of world outflows originated from European Union (EU) countries, notably France, Spain and the United Kingdom in that order. TNCs from developing and transition economies continued their international expansion in 2006, led by Hong Kong (China) in the former group of economies and the Russian Federation in the latter. Total FDI outflows from these groups of economies reached $193 billion, or 16% of world FDI outflows. ...
World Investment Report 2007: Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and development
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
The World Investment Report 2007 (WIR07) was prepared by a team led by Anne Miroux, comprising Torbjörn Fredriksson, Masataka Fujita, Kálmán Kalotay, Devianee Keetharuth, Dong Jae Lee, Guoyong Liang, Padma Mallampally, Nicole Moussa, Abraham Negash, Hilary Nwokeabia, Jean François Outreville, Thomas Pollan and Astrit Sulstarova. Kumi Endo, Justin Fisher, Joachim Karl, Hafiz Mirza, Shin Ohinata, Olle Östensson, Joerg Weber and James Zhan also contributed to the Report.
Principal research assistance was provided by Mohamed Chiraz Baly, Bradley Boicourt, Jovan Licina, Lizanne Martinez and Tadelle Taye. Dana Al-Sheikh, Darya Gerasimenko, Niels Heystek and Saveis Joze Sadeghian assisted as interns at various stages. The production of the WIR07 was carried out by Rosalina Goyena, Chantal Rakotondrainibe and Katia Vieu. WIR07 was desktop published by Teresita Ventura. It was edited by Praveen Bhalla.
John H. Dunning was the senior economic adviser.
WIR07 benefited from inputs provided by participants in a Global Seminar in Geneva in May 2007, and three regional seminars on TNCs in extractive industries held in March and April 2007: one in Santiago, Chile (in cooperation with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean), the second in Hanoi, Viet Nam (in cooperation with the ASEAN Secretariat), and the third in Randburg, South Africa (in cooperation with Mintek, South Africa’s national mineral research organisation).
Inputs were also received from Bekele Amare, Glenn Banks, Damian Brett, Peter Buckley, Humberto Campodónico, Frederick Cawood, Ken Chew, Mélanie Clerc, Kim Eling, Hamed El-Kady, Florence Engel, Magnus Ericsson, Keith Jefferis, Thomas Jost, Paul Jourdan, Abba Kolo, Romy Kraemer, Josaphat Kweka, Bryan Land, Michael Likosky, Kari Liuhto, Shervin Majlessi, Yusuf Mansur, Jonas Moberg, Peter Muchlinski, Silane Mwenechanya, Yinka Omorogbe, Antonio M.A. Pedro, Nehru Pillay, Melissa Powell, Marian Radetzki, Huaichuan Rui, Jenny Rydeman, Pedro Sainz, Osvaldo Urzúa, Aimable Uwizeye-Mapendano, Peeter Vahtra, Eveline van Mil, Rob van Tulder, Peter Zashev and Zbignew Zimny.
Comments and suggestions were received during various stages of preparation from Murat Alici, Rory Allan, Luis Alvarez, Erman Aminullah, Isabelle Anelli, Toutam Antipas, Benjamin N.A. Aryee, Yoseph Asmelash, Neal Baartjes, Doug Bannerman, Diana Barrowclough, Klaus Brendow, Perla Buenrostro, Bonnie Campbell, Eduardo Chaparro, Charlie Charuvastr, Allen Clark, Jeremy Clegg, John Cole-Baker, Herman Cornielson, Graham A. Davis, Persa Economou, Rod Eggert, Erwiza Erman, Petrus Fusi, Stephen Gelb, Richard Goode, John Groom, Martin Hahn, Ben Hammouda Hakim, Fabrice Hatem, Andrew Hayman, Susan Hayter, Katsuyuki Higae, David Humphreys, Gábor Hunya, Grazia Ietto-Gillies, Rajeev Jain, Roberto Kozulj, Steve Lenahan, Deirdre Lewis, Michael Lim, Paul Mitchell, Rekha Misra, Jesús Mora Contreras, Juan Carlos Moreno-Brid, Michael Mortimore, Hudson Mthega, Sodhie Naicker, Boyko Nitzov, Gerald Pachoud, Pavida Pananond, Lorraine Ruffing, Zavareh Rustomjee, A. Edward Safarian, Fernando Sánchez Albavera, John E. Tilton, Peter Utting, Kee Hwee Wee, Susanna Wolf, Changqi Wu and Frida Youssef.
Numerous officials of central banks, statistical offices, investment promotion and other government agencies, and officials of international organizations and non-governmental organizations, as well as executives of a number of companies, also contributed to WIR07, especially through the provision of data and other information. The Report also benefited from collaboration with Erasmus University, Rotterdam on the collection of data on, and analysis of, the largest TNCs.
The financial support of the Governments of France, Norway, Poland, the Republic of Korea, Sweden and the United Kingdom is gratefully acknowledged.
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